PROGRESSIVE WEB APPLICATION VERSION

ALL FORMS OF PUBLIC ART SCULPTURE - STATUES - MONUMENTS - STREET ART

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COIS NA LAOISCULPTURE BY AMERICAN ARTIST BETTY GOLD

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CITY BY PAT O'SULLIVANSOUTH MALL IN CORK MAY 2022

CITY BY PAT O

THE GLUCKSMANCORK UNIVERSITY CAMPUS MAY 2022

THE GLUCKSMAN AT CORK UNIVERSITY

CHA AND MIAH WHEN THEY WERE BOYSSTATUES BY BRENDAN BYRNE AT THE KINGSLEY HOTEL IN CORK

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CHA AND MIAH MAY 2022THE TWO WORKING MEN STATUES BY OISIN KELLY

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I ABSOLVE YOU AT SAINT SAVIOUR'S BY TIMOTHY SCHMALZ

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KNOWN TO THE STUDENTS AS BROWN THOMASSCULPTURE AT LIMERICK UNIVERSITY

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MY FAVOURITE ORANGE COWHOOK AND LADDER IN LIMERICK

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THIS IS THE POISED PORTALAND IT IS BY EILEEN MCDONAGH

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FLYING FIGURES SCULPTURE PHOTOGRAPHED MARCH 2022

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THE TITANIC KITBY TONY STALLARD

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BELFAST WHEELKING WILLIAM PARK MARCH 2022

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DIVIDERS BY VIVIEN BURNSIDECLARENDON DOCK MARCH 2022

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SAMMY THE SEALLAGAN WEIR MARCH 2022

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WAR MEMORIAL AT QUEEN'S UNIVERSITYMARCH 2022

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THE SEARCHER BY ROSS WILSON CS LEWIS SQUARE AT CONNSWATER IN BELFAST

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LANNISTER WINDOW AT HMS CAROLINE GLASS OF THRONES 6

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THE IRON THRONE AT THE TITANIC SLIPWAYS IN BELFAST

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GLASS OF THRONES 4 WHITE WALKERS LOCATED AT THE SS NOMADIC

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GLASS OF THRONES 2 THE RED WOMAN MELISANDRE LOCATED AT THE LAGAN WEIR

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GLASS OF THRONES 3HOUSE OF TARGARYEN - LOCATED AT THE ODYSSEY

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GLASS OF THRONES 1LOCATED AT THE AC HOTEL

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TITANICA BY RENOWNED IRISH SCULPTOR ROWAN GILLESPIE

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SCULPTURE BY LUCY GLENDINNINGAT SAINT ANNE'S SQUARE

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FLYING ANGEL BY MAURICE HARRON [] DEDICATED TO SEAFARERS []

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RECLINING FIGUREBY FREDERICK EDWARD MCWILLIAM

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SWEET WATER ARCH BY DENIS O’CONNOR AND BERNIE RUTTER

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WHEN IT RAINS LOOK FOR RAINBOWSWHEN IT'S DARK LOOK FOR STARS

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SCULPTURE BY BOB SLOANON DISPLAY IN BELFAST

BLACK TULIPBY EAMONN CEANNT

Eamonn Ceannt (b.1953, Dublin) is a graduate and former Vice President of UCD. His work is notable for its tactile qualities and sinuous forms. Ceannt has travelled extensively over the years including north Africa, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent and lived for a number of years in Kenya. The influence of native and classical art is evident in his work. 'Black Tulip' is one of a series of sculptures based on plant studies. This work was donated to UCD by RKD architects to mark their 100th anniversary.


RIALTOBY SANDRA BELL

This sculpture, located on the roundabout in what is now known as Rialto Village, was commissioned by the residents of Rialto. It depicts a figure enveloped by two fish.


LUKE KELLY STATUE AT GUILD STREETVANDALISED MANY TIMES

The Statue of Luke Kelly is a large marble sculpted head of Irish folk singer Luke Kelly. The statue is located at the north end of Linear Park, near the junction of Sheriff Street Upper and Guild Street, Dublin 1.

In July 2020 a A man has appeared in court charged in connection with the vandalism of a statue of Luke Kelly in Dublin. It was alleged that the defendant had sprayed the statue of the former Dubliners’ singer in Guild Street with blue paint on Sunday evening at 4.45pm.

SCULPTURE AT ENTRANCE TO ST KILIAN'S GERMAN SCHOOL ON ROEBUCK ROADUCD COLLEGE CAMPUS

The photograph is a bit confusing because a row of black and orange bollards can be seen through part of the sculpture ... I am assuming that the sculpture is a representation of the saint.

SAINT KILIAN

FORME IN MUTAZIONDEUCD COLLEGE CAMPUS

There are at least 35 examples of public art throughout the campus and having obtained a detailed map I hope to photograph all of them over the next few months.

Zennaro (b.1926, Venice) is a leading Italian exponent of the Concrete Art movement. Concrete Art is a form of abstraction that dismisses any analogies to nature or the natural world. This work was donated by the late Italian Ambassador to Ireland Dr. Francesco Carlo Gentile.

BY GIORGIO ZENNARO

NOAH'S EGG AT UCD CAMPUSBY RACHEL JOYNT

Rachel Joynt was commissioned by leading horse-trainer Dermot Weld to make this sculpture for the new Veterinary Medicine building. The quote beside the piece 'Omne vivum ex ovo' means all things come from the egg. Sperm like shapes cover the surface of the egg and include depictions of bulls, rats and hamsters as well as man. The sculpture is decorated with small holes, which create a planetarium-like effect when viewed from the pointed end.

Rachel Joynt (born 1966 in County Kerry) is an Irish sculptor who has created some prominent Irish public art. She graduated from the National College of Art and Design in Dublin in 1989 with a degree in sculpture.

Her father, Dick Joynt,[2] was also a sculptor. Rachel Joynt is preoccupied by ideas of place, history and nature, and her work often examines the past as a substrate of the present. Her commissions include People's Island (1988) in which brass footprints and bird feet criss-cross a well-traversed pedestrian island near Dublin's O'Connell Bridge. She collaborated with Remco de Fouw to make Perpetual Motion (1995), a large sphere with road markings which stands on the Naas dual carriageway. This has been described by Public Art Ireland as 'probably Ireland's best known sculpture' and was featured, as a visual shorthand for leaving Dublin, in The Apology, a Guinness advert. Joynt also made the 900 underlit glass cobblestones which were installed in early 2005 along the edge of Dublin's River Liffey; many of these cobblestones contain bronze or silver fish.

PRESS RELEASE:

'NOAH'S EGG', a giant cast-bronze egg sculpture, was unveiled on Tuesday 8 June 2004 by leading trainer, Dermot Weld at the UCD Veterinary School in Belfield. The sculpture was a gift from Dermot Weld to the UCD Faculty of Veterinary Medicine.

Noah's Egg represents the beginnings and potential of life, and symbolises both the field of veterinary medicine and the scholarly pursuits and ambitions of the Veterinary students and staff.

Noah's Egg, which was created by Rachel Joynt, is an interactive sculpture. It is decorated with small holes, which create a planetarium-like effect when viewed from the pointed end. The Egg's ochre, shell-like surface is richly textured with sperm-like shapes of various creatures including man, bull, rabbit, guinea pig, rat, mouse and hamster. At night, Noah's Egg will be illuminated by a warm red glow like an incubator light. Noah's Egg sits outside the UCD Veterinary Faculty's new state-of-the-art premises at Belfield.

At the unveiling ceremony Dr Hugh Brady, President of UCD said, "It is our ambition that the UCD Veterinary School be recognised as an international leader in veterinary education, research and clinical service. We are delighted that a graduate of the faculty, Dermot Weld, has generously donated this magnificent sculpture to UCD as a symbol of this ambition."

UCD's Faculty of Veterinary Medicine moved to its new purpose-built facility at Belfield in 2002. The new building provides students with an ideal environment to undertake their studies in Veterinary Medicine, with laboratories suited to the pursuit of innovative research and a superbly planned veterinary hospital to observe and practice veterinary medicine first hand. The Veterinary School is adjacent to the Faculties of Agriculture and Science and the Conway Institute for Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, which ensures that the School is well positioned to participate in the exciting developments in the life sciences at UCD.


RECLINING AND CONNECTED FORMS BY HENRY MOORE

For some strange reason this appears to be ignored by visitors and tourists who photograph everything except this.

Years ago Henry Moore provided , on loan, a sculpture which became known as 'The King And Queen' and it was located on the Library forecourt but as he was not happy about the location he decided that it should be returned. He had not been happy with the location because he felt that there was a conflict with the forecourt lanterns and because there was not enough sunlight on the north facing forecourt.

The university worked persistently to find a replacement for the King and Queen and eventually proposed the work by Pomodoro which is now permanently installed on the forecourt and which appears to have been made for it. A perfect outcome.

Eventually Trinity obtained another work by Henry Moore, for which a location in Library Square was agreed and where it has remained.

Henry Spencer Moore OM CH FBA (30 July 1898 – 31 August 1986) was an English artist. He is best known for his semi-abstract monumental bronze sculptures which are located around the world as public works of art. As well as sculpture, Moore produced many drawings, including a series depicting Londoners sheltering from the Blitz during the Second World War, along with other graphic works on paper.

His forms are usually abstractions of the human figure, typically depicting mother-and-child or reclining figures. Moore's works are usually suggestive of the female body, apart from a phase in the 1950s when he sculpted family groups. His forms are generally pierced or contain hollow spaces. Many interpreters liken the undulating form of his reclining figures to the landscape and hills of his Yorkshire birthplace.

Moore became well known through his carved marble and larger-scale abstract cast bronze sculptures, and was instrumental in introducing a particular form of modernism to the United Kingdom. His ability in later life to fulfil large-scale commissions made him exceptionally wealthy. Despite this, he lived frugally; most of the money he earned went towards endowing the Henry Moore Foundation, which continues to support education and promotion of the arts.


BRENDAN BEHAN AT BINNS BRIDGE23 FEBRUARY 2022

Brendan Behan was an Irish Republican, poet, short story writer, novelist, and playwright who wrote in both English and Irish. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest Irish writers and poets of all time. Behan died on 20 March 1964 at 41 years of age, when he collapsed at the Harbour Lights bar in Dublin.

In September 2003 a sculpture of Brendan Behan was unveiled at Binns Bridge on the banks of Dublin's Royal Canal.


8 LIMESTONES BY ULRICH RUCKRIEM I USED AN iPHONE XR

Created by artist, designer and nightclub pioneer Niall Sweeney, Club Chroma Chlorologia is a newly commissioned series of site-specific works installed in the gardens and grounds of the 17th-century Royal Hospital Kilmainham, which combine to create unlikely interventions that you can encounter, discover and take part in every time you visit the formal garden.

On August 1 and 2 2021, Saturn was at opposition, meaning the Earth will be located between the ringed planet and the sun. This is when the outer planet is at its most luminous, making for a brilliant night sky view.

Sweeney is a graphic designer from Dublin who makes up one half of Pony Ltd. The studio team were, as their website states, “born from the big smoke of Dublin and the seven hills of Sheffield, this studio is a perfect example of pulling fragments from all directions until the last piece completes the jigsaw.” Pony Ltd are well known for their theatrical and minimalist posters for Panti Bliss.


NIALL SWEENEY'S FOUNT OF SATURN 2021ROYAL HOSPITAL KILMAINHAM

Created by artist, designer and nightclub pioneer Niall Sweeney, Club Chroma Chlorologia is a newly commissioned series of site-specific works installed in the gardens and grounds of the 17th-century Royal Hospital Kilmainham, which combine to create unlikely interventions that you can encounter, discover and take part in every time you visit the formal garden.

On August 1 and 2 2021, Saturn was at opposition, meaning the Earth will be located between the ringed planet and the sun. This is when the outer planet is at its most luminous, making for a brilliant night sky view.

Sweeney is a graphic designer from Dublin who makes up one half of Pony Ltd. The studio team were, as their website states, “born from the big smoke of Dublin and the seven hills of Sheffield, this studio is a perfect example of pulling fragments from all directions until the last piece completes the jigsaw.” Pony Ltd are well known for their theatrical and minimalist posters for Panti Bliss.


DREAMSPHERE BY AOIFE DUNNEROYAL HOSPITAL KILMAINHAM

Hypnotically staged in the IMMA Courtyard, DREAMSPHERE – a site-specific installation devised by IMMA artist-in-residence Aoife Dunne – transports spectators to an immersive mindscape. Exploring the notion of consciousness as an exteriorised shared space in which to roam and reside, audiences are encircled by arresting sounds and screens. The ensuing visualisations, unfolding at a frenetic pace, send viewers on a surreal trip through the tumultuous mind; teasing future prospects of consciousness-sharing whilst exploiting technology to stretch the psychological parameters of human experience.

Dunne’s long-standing penchant for melding physical and digital disciplines is made manifest by the onscreen projections. From the material splendour of her costuming to the tactility of obscure found objects, a miscellany of palpable textures is transported to this virtual dimension, stoking visual-haptic sensations within the viewer. Heightening the multi-sensorial feel of Dunne’s dream realm, sonic idiosyncrasies soundtrack the performer’s fevered envisioning; furthering allusions to mental overwhelm and entrapment already sparked by the work’s enclosed structure.

DREAMSPHERE epitomises the multi-hyphenate nature of Dunne’s practice: the installation’s myriad features, unlimited to sculpture, sound, performance and film, were single handedly conceived by the artist, reflecting her tireless dexterity and flair for phantasmagoria.

Digital installation artist Aoife Dunne creates visually-arresting, immersive environments fusing sculpture, video, sound, performance, technology, and costume. Fuelled by a fascination with digital and material culture, Dunne’s idiosyncratic touch is laced with references to the surreal and hyper-real. Exploring an ethos rooted in post-pop and post-internet, Dunne’s work envelops audiences in abstract, detail-driven virtual and physical realms. Her multi dimensional approach to crafting large-scale, experiential work is informed by a diverse creative background steeped in dance, performance, fashion and musical composition. Bulldozing through the boundaries of what conventional exhibitions entail, Dunne reaps continent-crossing acclaim for her inimitable aesthetic and site-specific, colourfully chaotic work.

Aoife Dunne studied Fine Art Media at The National College of Art and Design and received her BFA in 2016. Since graduating, Dunne has held numerous exhibitions internationally, including The Museum of Contemporary Art Denver, The Royal Academy of Arts London, and upcoming solo shows in Puerto Rico, New York, London, Dublin, Paris, and Tokyo.

Artist website: aoifedunne.com Follow Aoife Dunne on Instagram: @efadone


BRONZE BUST OF JAMES CLARENCE MANGAN ST STEPHEN'S GREEN FEBRUARY 2022

Bronze bust, 'MANGAN', on a socle [plinth] with a marble relief of a woman's head, 'Roisin Dubh'. Sculptor Oliver Sheppard.

James Clarence Mangan, born James Mangan (Irish: Séamus Ó Mangáin; 1 May 1803, Dublin – 20 June 1849), was an Irish poet. He freely translated works from German, Turkish, Persian, Arabic, and Irish, with his translations of Goethe gaining special interest. After the Great Famine in Ireland, he began writing patriotic poems, such as A Vision of Connaught in the Thirteenth Century. Mangan was troubled, eccentric, and an alcoholic. He died early from cholera. After his death, Mangan was hailed as Ireland's first national poet and admired by writers such as James Joyce and William Butler Yeats.

Oliver Sheppard RHA (10 April 1865 – 14 September 1941) was an Irish sculptor, most famous for his 1911 bronze statue of the mythical Cuchullain dying in battle. His work was also part of the art competitions at the 1924 Summer Olympics and the 1928 Summer Olympics.

"Róisín Dubh" ( "Dark Rosaleen" or "Little Dark Rose"), written in the 16th century, is one of Ireland's most famous political songs. It is based on an older love-lyric which referred to the poet's beloved rather than, as here, being a metaphor for Ireland. The intimate tone of the original carries over into the political song. It is often attributed to Antoine Ó Raifteiri, but almost certainly predates him


TRACE BY GRACE WEIRHAS IT DISAPPEARED WITHOUT TRACE

This is a very old photograph dating from 6 August 2006. Unfortunately I do not know what camera was used but I suspect that it was a Canon IXUS [known as a Powershot in the USA].

From about 1988 until 2013 this large sculpture by sculptor Grace Weir stood across the street from St Stephen’s Green, near Merrion Row. I thought that the sculpture was "Portals" but I recently discovered that it was "Trace".

Unfortunately this sculpture had to be removed to make room for traffic that had to be diverted because of the extension of the LUAS green line. It is now in storage but it has been discovered in 2017 it was discovered that four of the Portland-stone blocks were missing.

Trace had been commissioned in 1988 as part of Dublin’s millennium celebrations. It was made from limestone and Portland stone, with the latter taken from the Custom House and donated to the artist when the building was undergoing restoration works in the late 1980s.

Grace Weir studied at the National College of Art and Design and also at Trinity College Dublin, where she won an award for her Masters in Multi-Media graduation project. She co-represented Ireland at the 49th International Venice Biennale in 2001 with her video installation 'around now'.

Grace Weir collaborated with an astrophysicist exploring aspects of Einstein's relativity and was commissioned by Cornerhouse in Manchester UK to make two film works ‘Dust defying gravity' and ‘Bending spacetime in the basement' in regard to this. They were premiered at her solo show titled ‘a fine line' at Cornerhouse, Manchester UK in September 2003. In May 2005 she was elected a member of Aosdána. Her work is held in many collections including that of the Irish Museum of Modern Art.


THE THREE FATES BY GERMAN SCULPTOR JOSEF WACKERLE

A public sculpture depicting The Three Fates 'spinning and measuring the thread of man's destiny'. The bronze statue was created by German sculptor Josef Wackerle about 1956 and gifted to the Irish people by the West German people in gratitude for aid in the wake of the Second World War.

Bronze sculpted statue of three robed and hooded female figures cast in two sections, highest figure with left hand raised and holding spool of string, middle figure standing with right hand raised, third and lowest crouching, each figure holding piece of thread. Three brass plaques fixed to top of wall around fountain, that facing east inscribed 'With gratitude for the help given to German children by the Irish people after World War II. Roman Herzog president of the Federal Republic of Germany 23.03.1997'; inscription repeated in Irish and German. Plaque to south side inscribed 'This fountain designed by the sculptor Josef Wackerle is the gift of the people of the German Federal Republic to mark their gratitude for Ireland's help after the war of 1939-45. Group portrays the legendary Three Fates spinning and measuring the thread of man's destiny'; inscription repeated in Irish on plaque to north.

Operation Shamrock was a scheme bringing refugee children from mainland Europe to Ireland in the aftermath of the Second World War. It was organised by the Irish Red Cross, and involved about 500 children, mostly from Germany, who stayed for three years before returning home.

Irish assistance to Germany reinforced in Britain the perception, fostered by wartime neutrality, that Ireland was pro-Nazi. Conversely, West Germany in the 1950s had gratitude for Ireland's postwar relief aid, and ties grew between the countries. In January 1956 a memorial fountain sculpted by Joseph Wackerle and commissioned by the German Gratitude Fund was unveiled in St Stephen's Green, Dublin, by the West German ambassador.

In 1961, the German war cemetery was opened near St Kevin's Hostel, Glencree, for graves of German aviators killed in Ireland during the war. In 1974, the hostel became the Glencree Centre for Peace and Reconciliation, which played a role in the Northern Ireland peace process in the 1990s.

German-language courses provided for refugees in Dublin led to the foundation of St Kilian's German School.

In March 1997, a reunion of over 300 foster-children and families was held at the German embassy in Dublin, attended by Presidents Mary Robinson of Ireland and Roman Herzog of Germany.

As part of The Gathering Ireland 2013, 21 refugee children from Germany, France and Austria returned to Glencree.

Joseph Wackerle (15 May 1880, Partenkirchen – 20 March 1959, Partenkirchen) was a German sculptor. His work was also part of the art competitions at the 1928 Summer Olympics and the 1932 Summer Olympics.

Wackerle's grandfather was a wood carver, and his father was a builder. He was educated at the School of Applied Arts and at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich. At 26, he was appointed artistic director of the Nymphenburg Porcelain Manufactory in Munich. From 1913 to 1917 he worked as a teacher at the Museum of Decorative Art in Berlin. He became a lecturer at the Munich Academy, where he taught until 1950.

In 1937, Joseph Goebbels proposed Wackerle, who was the Reich Culture Senator, for the German National Prize for Art and Science. In 1940, on his 60th Birthday, Wackerle received the Goethe Medal for Art and Science after a recommendation from Adolf Hitler. He was highly rated as an artist by the Nazi rulers, and in August 1944 he was named by Adolf Hitler on the list of the most important German sculptors, which freed him from military duty.

After the end of World War II Wackerle continued his artistic career and was still highly regarded in the Munich area. In 1953, he was awarded the Visual Arts Promotion Prize by the city of Munich.

He died in 1959 and is buried in the cemetery of Partenkirchen.


THE WB YEATS STATUE IN ST STEPHEN'S GREEN BY HENRY MOORE

The Yeats memorial garden with a sculpture by Henry Moore.

Published on 8 July 2020: "Today, the Office of Public Works is delighted to announce the reopening of the William Butler Yeats Memorial in St Stephens Green Park, following an extensive programme of conservation works including the rejuvenation of ‘Knife Edge’ a sculpture by the internationally renowned sculpture Henry Moore."

The W.B. Yeats Memorial is situated in an area known as the “Mount”, being a series of irregular terraces, forming an amphitheatre within the park. The creation of the amphitheatre was intentional; to provide an area in the Green that can be used for quiet contemplation or theatre, in the round and oration, reflecting Yeats’ work as a poet & playwright, as much as an informal place for people to gather. It remains today a much loved place, regarded by many as their own shared secret place among the trees.

The sculpture was donated by the W.B. Yeats Memorial Committee and funded by Irish American Philanthropist Mr. J. Kelly and Córas Tráchtála Teoranta. The Committee, who made a formal application to the Office of Public Works to place the proposed memorial in St Stephens Green, as "it was one of Yeats' favourite haunts."

The location of the sculpture was specifically chosen for the attractive views of the lake and waterfall obtained from the setting, which was terraced and paved by the Office of Public Works at the time. It has been cited as one of the finest settings for Henry Moore's 'Knife Edge' by such eminent bodies as the Henry Moore Foundation.

Set onto the terrace in front of the sculpture is a plaque giving the sculpture its context as part of the Memorial. This was created by esteemed Sculptor Michael Biggs, the prominent sculptor and graphic designer responsible for the Arbour Hill Memorial Wall and the Series B Irish Banknotes (circulation 1976-1992).

On October 26th 1967, the W.B. Yeats Memorial was unveiled by the Taoiseach, Mr. Jack Lynch. The recent works included; repair and re-laying of pavements, steps and terraces; conservation of bronze sculpture and plaque; and installation of handrails to improve accessibility to the W.B. Yeats Memorial.


THE SEATED STATUE OF LORD ARDILAUNST STEPHEN'S GREEN IN DUBLIN

A seated statue of Lord Ardilaun on the western side, the man who gave the Green to the city, facing the Royal College of Surgeons which he also sponsored.

Access to the Green was restricted to local residents, until 1877, when Parliament passed an Act to reopen St Stephen's Green to the public, at the initiative of Sir A.E. Guinness, a member of the Guinness brewing family who lived at St Anne's Park, Raheny and at Ashford Castle. He later paid for the laying out of the Green in approximately its current form, which took place in 1880, and gave it to the Corporation, as representatives of the people. By way of thanks, the city commissioned a statue of him, which faces the College of Surgeons. His brother Edward lived at Iveagh House, which his descendants gave in 1939 to the Department of External Affairs (now the Department of Foreign Affairs).

The park is now operated by the Office of Public Works (OPW) on behalf of the Irish state.


This site is currently being rebuilt in the background and the current major project is to switch to PWA during 2022 and this has proved to be more difficult than expected.

A progressive web application (PWA), commonly known as a progressive web app, is a type of application software delivered through the web, built using common web technologies including HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and WebAssembly. It is intended to work on any platform that uses a standards-compliant browser, including both desktop and mobile devices.

As of 2021, PWA features are supported to varying degrees by Google Chrome, Apple Safari, Firefox for Android, and Microsoft Edge but not by Firefox for desktop.


Since a progressive web app is a type of webpage or website known as a web application, they do not require separate bundling or distribution. Developers can just publish the web application online, ensure that it meets baseline "installability requirements", and users will be able to add the application to their home screen. Publishing the app to digital distribution systems like Apple App Store or Google Play is optional.

In 2015, designer Frances Berriman and Google Chrome engineer Alex Russell coined the term "progressive web apps" to describe apps taking advantage of new features supported by modern browsers, including service workers and web app manifests, that let users upgrade web apps to progressive web applications in their native operating system (OS). Google then put significant efforts into promoting PWA development for Android. Firefox introduced support for service workers in 2016, and Microsoft Edge and Apple Safari followed in 2018, making service workers available on all major systems.

By 2019, PWAs were supported by desktop versions of most browsers, including Microsoft Edge (on Windows) and Google Chrome[ (on Windows, macOS, Chrome OS and Linux).

In December 2020, Firefox for desktop abandoned implementation of PWAs (specifically, removed the prototype "site-specific browser" configuration that had been available as an experimental feature). A Firefox architect noted: "The signal I hope we are sending is that PWA support is not coming to desktop Firefox anytime soon." Mozilla still plans to support PWAs on Android.


Since a progressive web app is a type of webpage or website known as a web application, they do not require separate bundling or distribution. In particular, there is no requirement for developers or users to install the web apps via digital distribution systems like Apple App Store, Google Play, Microsoft Store or Samsung Galaxy Store. To varying degrees, the major app stores support publication of PWAs.[1] Google Play, Microsoft Store,[19] and Samsung Galaxy Store support PWAs, but Apple App Store does not. Microsoft Store publishes some qualifying PWAs automatically (even without app authors' request) after discovering them via Bing indexing.
Progressive web apps are all designed to work on any browser that is compliant with the appropriate web standards. As with other cross-platform solutions, the goal is to help developers build cross-platform apps more easily than they would with native apps. Progressive web apps employ the progressive enhancement web development strategy.

Some progressive web apps use an architectural approach called the App Shell Model.[ In this model, service workers store the Basic User Interface or "shell" of the responsive web design web application in the browser's offline cache. This model allows for PWAs to maintain native-like use with or without web connectivity. This can improve loading time, by providing an initial static frame, a layout or architecture into which content can be loaded progressively as well as dynamically.

The technical baseline criteria for a site to be considered a progressive web app and therefore "installable" by browsers were described by Russell in a follow-up post[23] and updated since:

Originate from a secure origin. Served over TLS and green padlock displays (no active mixed content). Progressive web apps must be served via HTTPS to ensure user privacy, security, and content authenticity.

Register a service worker with a fetch handler. Progressive web apps must use service workers to create programmable content caches. Unlike regular HTTP web cache, which caches content after the first use and then relies on various heuristics to guess when content is no longer needed, programmable caches can explicitly prefetch content in advance before it's used for the first time and explicitly discard it when it is no longer needed. This requirement helps pages to be accessible offline or on low quality networks.

Reference a web app manifest. The manifest must contain at least the five key properties: name or short_name, start_url, and display (with a value of standalone, fullscreen or minimal-ui), and icons (with 192px and a 512px versions). Information contained in manifest makes PWAs easily shareable via a URL, discoverable by a search engines, and alleviates complex installation procedures (but PWAs still can be listed in a third-party app store).[27] Furthermore, PWAs support native app-style interactions and navigation, including being added to home screen, displaying splashscreens, etc.



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ZEISS BATIS 85mm LENS