Marlborough Street now has a tram stop on the Luas Green Line.

The street is named after The 1st Duke of Marlborough, known for his victory at Blenheim during the 18th century. In the late 19th century it was for a time called Tyrone Street after Tyrone House. The lower part of the street was at different times called Union Lane, Ferryboat Lane, and Union Street.

One of the principal buildings on this street is St Mary's Pro-Cathedral, designed by John Sweetman, and completed in 1825. Other buildings include offices of the Department of Education and Skills.

There is also what used to be a depot belonging to the Dublin United Tramways Company. Dublin Bus now use the premises.

Marlborough Street was the location of the original St. Thomas’s Church which was damaged in 1922.